A person appointed to be chief scientist must be an experienced seagoing scientist. The chief scientist is responsible for the accomplishment of the planned work of a cruise or segment of a cruise, and has other responsibilities listed in the Chief Scientist Manual. Since the ships are either owned by the University of California or are operated by the University under charter-party agreements with the Navy, the University has legal responsibility. The chief scientist, regardless of actual employer, is therefore the representative of the operator - the Scripps Institution of Oceanography of the University of California - in the eyes of the law. The chief scientist is appointed by the associate director; this appointment cannot be redelegated without permission. CO-chief scientists are sometimes named if there is a compelling operational reason for this. In such cases, it is imperative that the division of responsibility be specified in advance. A letter is sent to the proposed chief scientist(s) prior to the cruise, making the appointment and designating the dates, source of funding, and the length of the cruise.